In the Middle Ages the technology of weapon development moved from man power to gun powder. Catapults and other stone throwing artillery would be replaced with cannons. Bows and arrows and crossbows were replaced with hand held guns. These developments helped to end the period of time called the Middle Ages.
English Yew longbow (105 lbf at 32 inches). Photo taken by James Cram.
Archers and crossbowmen could win battles. The archers could rain down
upon the enemy such a lethal amount of arrows so as to stop any
successful charge. Archers started their training when they were very
young. A long bow required much strength and skill to be used
effectively in battle.
An archer at an arrowslit
A crossbow man at an arrowslit